What is migraine: its symptoms, causes, diagnosis and treatment methods

At Least once in life each person faced attacks of a headache. But it is one thing when it is a slight malaise associated with fatigue or fatigue. And another, when the pain is so pronounced that life seems unbearable. 

In the second case, most likely, it is not a banal headache. Here the ball is ruled by migraine, from which most often suffer women.

Features of the disease

What is this migraine from which Nietzsche, Napoleon, Tchaikovsky and Caesar suffered? This is a neurological disease in which there are regular or periodic attacks of headache. They affect only one part of it. For example, can encompass head from left or right. By the way, hence the name of the disease. Translated from French it just means "half of the head."

W in some situations, the problem covers the whole head. In this case, it is a bilateral disease.

The Disease belongs to the category of vascular problems. The mechanism of its occurrence begins with the expansion of the walls of blood vessels responsible for the nutrition of the brain. When expanding, they put pressure on the nerve cells that are in the neighborhood. The result is migraine, which is divided into General and classical.

It has become very widespread disease. About 10-15% of all adults know about it firsthand. In some countries, this figure is 30%. In most patients, the first attacks occur before the age of 30 years. 

Most Often, the disease makes itself felt in people 18-20 years. Less cases, when the first attack occurred at those who are 30-35 years old. There are cases of migraines in children. Some kids 5-8 years are already familiar with the painful headache.

Who is in at risk? The disease can occur in both men and women. But the representatives of the weaker half are more prone to this problem. They have it occurs approximately in 2 times more often than boys.

During the manifestation the pain is so severe that one can think of the presence of serious diseases such as stroke, tumors or injuries. But all this is absent and does not cause deviation.

Manifestations occur in each patient with a certain frequency. At some - only 1 or 2 times a year. Others - several times a month or even a week.

Key migraine symptoms

Key symptoms of migraineKey symptoms of migraine

How to understand that this is a migraine, and not the usual headache or symptoms after alcohol? Of course, the main feature - a powerful head pain that usually affects only one part of the head. Often the picture is complemented by vomiting or nausea. Many patients have an increased sensitivity to light and sounds.

Sometimes people try to associate the manifestation with increased intracranial or blood pressure. But in fact it has nothing to do.

When the patient suffers from the classic version of the disease, a few hours before the onset of the syndrome, he may already have some common symptoms. Man covers drowsiness, anxiety, irritability and fatigue. Mood changes dramatically. Many people have an increased sensitivity to noise, light and smells. 

Often is actually added psychosomatics. Many people "predict" attacks after severe stress or experiences.

In the classical form an atmosphere, which is accompanied by neurological signs. This is the next stage at which are marked symptoms of focal type, manifested approximately within 1 hour. The aura itself has a different character. Accordingly, each person can be observed in their own way. 

Some patients report impaired sense of smell or hearing. Other changes playback of the speech or the correctness of the movements. A frequent symptom - eye problems that manifest themselves in the form of:

  • shrouds;
  • systematic bright bursts;
  • "goosebumps."

What determines this difference in the manifestations of the aura? This is due to differences in the involved areas of the brain. 

After aura begins pain phase. The attack is pulsating and occurs in the temples, in the eye area, in the frontal part. Pain can persist from several hours to 3 days. Usually it is indicated only in one part of the head. But gradually increases and "spreads". 

When syndrome distributed, it is often concentrated clearly in certain places. Localization is usually observed in the temples, ear, eye, forehead. Some noted spread on the parietal part, in the neck or shoulder. Sometimes the attack is so powerful that it seems as if he captured the whole body.

Often, the development of an attack complete the picture dizziness, vomiting, chills, diarrhea, frequent urination. From the side where the pain is localized, swelling, lacrimation are possible, swelling and active pulsation of the artery.

On the background of migraine in some cases are vegetative crises, which are expressed:

  • increased heart rate;
  • feeling of lack of air;
  • numbness of limbs;
  • chills.

Observed pressure fluctuations. Often there is anxiety that only exacerbates the condition of the patient. The picture is complemented by a sense of gravity in nape.

The Next stage is pain resolution. But it calms down not at once, but gradually. Usually after this the patient falls into a deep sleep. After awakening, there is complete mental and physical exhaustion.

Then comes the recovery process, which proceeds for several days. At the same time, there is a gradual normalization of vision, hearing, smell, poor appetite, weakness, fatigue.

But if the migraine is of a General nature, the aura may not manifest. Patients immediately note all the symptoms of the attack. This form is most common and noted in most patients.

Main causes of migraine

The main causes of migrainethe Main causes of migraine

Which causes this neurological disorder? There are several main causes of severe headache. Most often, the disease is observed in residents of megacities. At risk are women, especially those who take oral contraceptives. Preparations with high dosage of estrogens are ways to provoke the problem.

Another common cause of pain is Smoking. Often an attack occurs in a child or adult who has a high sensitivity to certain products, also with sinusitis. In women and men, the disease can remind itself after drinking alcohol. 

Among other provocateurs of migraine are:

  • prolonged insomnia;
  • severe fluctuations in the weather;
  • cervical osteochondrosis;
  • excessive physical stress;
  • the odors that cause irritation to the respiratory system.

In women, the attack often develops against the background of hormonal fluctuations. Accordingly, the symptoms can be very sharp before the monthly, in the early stages of pregnancy, in the 2nd and 3rd trimester.

In a child, the disease often manifests itself due to psychological trauma.

Another important reason is heredity. If the parents knew about the problem firsthand, it is likely to face it and the descendants.


Often with severe pain in the occipital or temporal part the head of the patient himself makes the diagnosis. In fact, it is recommended to consult a doctor so that a professional can offer a diagnosis plan, and according to its results - quality treatment. Because migraine is ocular, basilar, ubusuna, vestibular.

When diagnosing going to a full medical history, given heredity. There are also studies that allow to exclude various diseases with similar symptoms.

Treatment migraines

Treatment of migrainemigraine Treatment

Only after a thorough examination is the correct therapy prescribed. How to treat the disease? It is optimal to start acting at the earliest stages of the problem. Today there are effective medicines that are focused on migraine relief. Also, abortive therapy, preventing the very beginning of the disease, is allocated.

Medicines for a headache

What tools can help? Experts note efficiency:

  • calcium channel blockers;
  • betablockers;
  • antidepressants.

If you mark specific names of drugs, it is very well proven tryptans, aspirin, caffeine combination with aspirin. To remove the attack quickly and effectively, such compositions should be used at the very beginning of the development of the syndrome.

In some cases, the doctor may prescribe dehydrating drugs and tranquilizers.

Which migraine drugs are considered to be the most effective? A separate group of effective means, which are based on a mixture of codeine, paracetamol and caffeine. It is represented by such drugs: Nurofen, naproxen, Pentalgin, sedalgin neo, solpadein, ibuprofen, diclofenac. Among them you can find the most inexpensive and effective options. Their price ranges from 120-300 rubles.

Separate attention deserve means ergot, in which structure is usually present high levels of caffeine. These drugs have a tonic effect on the blood vessels of the brain. It's not just the pills. Such medicines are available in the format of capsules, powders, nasal sprays, drops. In the list of such compounds is included Ergotamine, Noehren, Cafergot, etc.

But these options are not suitable during breast feeding, during pregnancy, for angina.

Other migraine painkillers are a category of drugs with Triplane. This list includes Relpax, Naramig, Amigrenin, Zomig, Imigran, Sumatriptan, Triligran.

Also many people are interested in, whether antispasmodics migraine? In fact, the nature of disease is such that caution, tsitramon p, strong, analginum, spazgan, MiG and the like would not always remove the pain. But they help to get rid of other concomitant syndromes. It should be remembered that most of these funds can not be given to the child and nursing mother.

Only to remove other symptoms, you can take tempalgin, Nise, ketorol, nimesil nimesulide and. The last 2 drugs are good to help relieve the pain that gives in the hand.

Migraine drugsmigraine Drugs

It is Better to take vasodilators. Among the cheapest and most popular means in the list of the best fall:

  • eufillin;
  • no-shpa or drotaverine in injections;
  • nikoverin;
  • theobromine;
  • papaverine hydrochloride;
  • apressin.

No less effective may be means in new forms. This is not familiar to us tablets created by the type of acetylsalicylic acid or analgin. 

A Great option - a band-aid. Very positive feedback from those who suffer persistent symptoms of neurologic nature. There are different versions, but good have established themselves patches Zelrix, which include sumatriptan. The active components penetrate into the blood and remain there for a long time, allowing to relieve the patient's condition.

Effective aerosols and solutions for needle-free injections are available Today.

Non-Drug treatments for migraine

Non-drug treatments for migrainenon-Drug treatments for migraine

But during breastfeeding, during pregnancy and not all medications are suitable for a child. Is it possible to eliminate a headache without pills? Or there are no such options?

In fact, it is believed that acupuncture can cope with the problem. This is a special acupressure, aimed not so much at treatment as at the prevention of the disease. Exposure to special points that need to be massaged, avoids unpleasant symptoms.

Also cure migraine besides pills allow:

  • special exercise aimed at stress relief;
  • hirudotherapy;
  • massage course;
  • meditation to soothing music;
  • psychotherapy.

The effectiveness of physiotherapy, psychomotor relaxation and manual therapy is Also noted. Well work wise and essential oils away from of the problem. 

But what essential oil is best to choose for aromatherapy at home? Fight attacks offered by extracts of cinnamon, anise, lavender, wormwood, Basil, ginger, cardamom, Valerian, Catnip, chamomile, rosemary, tansy, Melissa, hops, mint, St. John's wort, lemon.

There are other folk remedies. The child can be given warm milk with honey. The recipe is suitable even for manifestations of cluster and tensor pain with temperature, when it is impossible to tolerate further. Why? Since the attacks will only accrue.

Still possible to do lotions of grated potatoes, by distillation, mixed with 50 ml of milk and squeezed on my head as a beanie.

To Know the other folk remedies against migraine attacks, you from the video:

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