Vitamin B3 (Nicotinic acid): full description, application, functions, dosage, sources.

Vitamin B3 nicotinic acid

Nicotinic acid (Niacin, vitamin pp, vitamin b 3) is a vitamin that takes part in the metabolism of iron, carbohydrates, proteins, as well as in redox processes. This substance is more chemically stable than other b Vitamins. the human Body is able to convert the amino acid tryptophan into Niacin.

PP vitamin has a levelling effect on the level of cholesterol in the blood, involved in the exchange of pyruvic acid, increases the supply of glycogen in the liver and reduce blood glucose. In addition, vitamin increases venous pressure, lowers blood pressure, dilates capillaries and arterioles, increases blood flow, increases heart rate and increases inhibitory processes in the cerebral cortex.

Vitamin PP is of great importance for improving blood circulation and health heart in General – the substance takes part in almost 100 types of reactions, as a result of which fat and sugar are converted into energy.

Nicotinic acid – application and daily value:

The Daily rate of vitamin for men is from 13 to 28 mg, for women – from 12 to 20 mg. When breastfeeding or pregnancy in women, as well as in the process of taking antibiotics, with intensive mental, physical activity, neuropsychic stress, in conditions of hot climate or in the Far North the need for nicotinic acid increases.

Main functions:

  • improves digestion process;
  • reduces headaches;
  • serves as prevention acute myocardial infarction and angina;
  • dilates blood vessels of the heart;
  • has anti-sclerotic effects by reducing the levels of cholesterol in the blood;
  • takes part in fat, carbohydrate, energy metabolism;
  • Niacin is important for the synthesis of hormones (insulin, thyroxine, cortisone, etc.);
  • is effective to prevent the development of pellagra;
  • improves overall condition organism's.

Lack of nicotinic acid in the human body

In the human body under the influence of microbial intestinal flora the formation of nicotinic acid it is derived from the amino acid tryptophan (from 60 mg of amino acid that comes from food, 1 mg of Niacin is formed). But to ensure the whole body is not enough of this synthesis. It is therefore important that foods containing nicotinic acid as well as proteins containing tryptophan be included in the diet.

Hypovitaminosis manifested in the following characteristics:

  • decrease working capacity;
  • depression;
  • irritability;
  • insomnia;
  • headaches;
  • weakness;
  • nausea;
  • constipation;
  • decreased appetite.

Also, with insufficient intake of vitamin b3, pellagra disease develops, which is accompanied by:

  • dermatitis (pigmentation, skin swelling, erythema, peeling symmetrical open areas of the skin);
  • neuropsychiatric disorders (hallucinations, deafness, memory loss, polyneuritis, etc.);
  • lesions of the mucous membranes of the tongue and oral cavity, which are inflammatory (cracks, swelling, redness);
  • intestinal and gastric mucosa atrophy;
  • morphological changes in the cells of the medulla oblongata, spinal cord and cerebellum's.

Excess of nicotinic acid in the human body

Hypervitaminosis a is manifested in fatty infiltration of the liver due to irregularities in the formation of lipotropic factors (choline).

Where is vitamin PP contained?

Vitamin PP is found in the following products: sorrel, spinach, mulberry, garlic, cherry, horseradish, dill, pumpkin, beet, parsley, carrot, raspberry, onion, hazelnut, potato, cabbage, melon, buckwheat, walnuts, grapes, cherries, eggplant, watermelon, peanuts.

Also Niacin is found in beer yeast, salmon, pork, liver, Turkey meat, white chicken meat.

There are also herbs that are very rich in nicotinic acid: burdock root, chamomile, fennel seeds, ginseng, peppermint, parsley, nettle, sorrel, sage.

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