In all times women sought be young, beautiful and slender. At the present stage, such a question is solved in several ways: some run to the gym, others – are engaged in at home and revise the personal diet, others – starve themselves. It is about the consequences of the third option, which becomes the cause of such a well-known disease as anorexia, will be discussed in article.
What is anorexia?
Anorexia is a pathological condition in which a person deliberately reduces his weight to critically low levels. As a rule, a complete rejection of food, exhausting diets are realized only because of the desire to be like those "ideal" images that are stuffed with glossy publications.
According to statistics, symptoms and signs anorexia in varying degrees can be seen in 2-3% of the female population, since the disease is still more often associated with teenage girls and young women. The average age of anorexia is 14-30 years.
Important! The body becomes so exhausted that the result of the disease can even be fatal. Data indicate 20% of clinical cases.
Why does the disease occur?
Before to understand the causes of anorexia, should be a little tell about its types.
- Mental anorexia – develops against the background of diseases of the Central nervous system or after treatment with psychotropic drugs. Often occurs in parallel with schizophrenia, delusional ideas, depression.
- Medical anorexia – the development of the problem is characteristic of intentional or accidental administration of high doses of antidepressants and drugs that stimulate the activity of the Central nervous system.
- Symptomatic anorexia – it appears as a result of somatic diseases (cancer, thyroid disease, insulin-dependent diabetes, etc.), as well as in postoperative periods.
- Anorexia nervosa (psychological) – the most frequent variant of the problem, which will be discussed further. A person deliberately refuses to eat to lose weight.
Experts distinguish several theories of appearance diseases. The first – the theory of avoiding food on the background of phobias. Simply put, patients stop eating for fear of gaining weight, which already reaches critically low numbers. This behavior is typical for adolescents, because many are embarrassed by the changes in the body that they occur, for example, faster than their peers.
The Following theory to the development of anorexia – disharmonious teenage crisis. Occurs in those people who from childhood were under excessive the care of their parents. The slightest comments and advice about the structure of their bodies cause a storm of negative emotions. Young girls completely refuse food to achieve the desired goal and like others.
Factors-provocateurs disease are:
- the presence of the gene susceptibility to anorexia nervosa;
- pathology of adequate neurotransmitter synthesis;
- low self-esteem;
- presence of signs perfectionism in character;
- desire to follow fashion trends.
Stages of anorexia
A Nervous type of eating disorder occurs in several stages.
First – preganancies. Women and girls (rarely young guys) catch themselves thinking that their figure is not as good as you want, begin the first search for methods of rapid weight loss. At this stage, appetite decreases against the background of nervous experiences and stress, there is a weakness, decreased performance.
The Second stage of disease – anorectic. There is a complete rejection of food or a very small intake, body weight is rapidly reduced, appetite is reduced or absent altogether. Patients look exhausted, but, oddly enough, they are happy with their results, not noticing the first bright symptoms and signs of anorexia nervosa.
Important! Criticism of relatives and friends is not perceived. Sick seems, that weight their the body still needs to be lowered, even if it is already at critically low levels.
Last stage of anorexia – kahectina. Symptoms and signs of the disease are visible to the naked eye. A person is severely depleted, the work of all internal organs is disrupted, brain cells suffer from an acute lack of energy and nutrients. Body weight is reduced by 50% of what would be ideal for the patient. At some point, the body simply refuses function, there comes a lethal outcome.
Signs and symptoms of anorexia
The First signs and symptoms of anorexia nervosa are changes in eating behavior. There is a refusal of food for 1-2 days, then this becomes a habitual way of life. Initially, the diet is removed from the muffin, flour, sweets, then the patient refuses vegetables and fruits, leaving only water and raw carrots. Later, he achieves a decrease in appetite with chewing gum.
However, not all suffering nervous type of anorexia may refuse to eat. Many people eat food, but then take laxatives, provoke attacks of vomiting. It it allows you to get rid of what a person ate and reduce body weight. The desire to be attractive, all-absorbing thought.
Sometimes family members notice a change in behavior. They are manifested in the fact that a person begins to hide food in his room, trying to eat, and then cause vomiting so that no one saw him. At the stage of obvious anorexia, the following symptoms and signs of the disease appear:
- arrhythmia, heart rate becomes more rare;
- patients lose consciousness, complain of dizziness, headache;
- you receive hypotension (low blood pressure);
- changes the condition of the skin and its derivatives (nails, hair);
- there is pain in the stomach and intestines;
- menstruation and ovulation disappear, the girl becomes unable to conceive a child;
- diseases of the musculoskeletal system appear due to metabolic disorders (osteoporosis);
- the psychological state of the patient becomes unpredictable (desire to commit suicide, despair, etc.).
Anorexia in children
The Problem of anorexia in children usually occurs during puberty. Teenage girls are often unhappy with their figure, especially when there is a rapid growth of the breast and the emergence of other secondary sexual characteristics. Upon the background of their peers, they look more adult and large. The fear of meeting with obesity becomes an obsession, so teenagers begin to actively look for methods of weight loss, rushing to extremes.
The Causes of anorexia in younger children may be overprotection of parents, over-feeding, ridicule of others, a tendency to mental disorders, severe infectious diseases.
Parents can replace the first signs and symptoms of anorexia, when the child begins to treat the process of eating inadequately. Children begin to study the caloric content and composition of food, use small plates, swallow food without chewing, hide food from himself.
Important! You can notice a complete rejection of food, drink only throughout the day, taking a laxative.
Symptoms and signs of anorexia nervosa in children, which can be seen when examining the body patient:
- eyes sink;
- facial features sharpen;
- hair falls out massively;
- skin becomes dry, flakes;
- nails turn yellow, break;
- ribs and collarbone stick out noticeably.
In girls there is a change in the menstrual cycle. If before the onset of anorexia psychological type of menstruation has not yet been, it may not appear at all. If the cycle was formed, the menstruation disappears.
Self-treatment of anorexia is not necessary. As a rule, patients and their relatives underestimate the severity of what happens to the body and internal organs of a sick person. In addition, it is almost impossible to determine and then eradicate the causes of the disease on your own. You should seek help from professionals who recommend hospitalization patient's.
In the treatment of anorexia, the support of relatives and friends is important. They need to motivate, helping to prepare a menu, buying healthy foods, personally, cooking certain dishes. It should be together to enjoy every added kilogram.
The First stage of treatment lasts several weeks. The patient must comply with bed rest. Doctors develop an individual menu. The initial daily calorie – 500 kcal, which is divided into 6-7 meals. To block the gag reflex, drug therapy is used.
- juices based on fruits or vegetables in diluted form;
- broths based on lean meat, fish, vegetables;
- jelly, jelly;
- liquid porridge;
- products used for baby food;
- slimy soups.
To to restore appetite to anorexia, apply insulin therapy. The solution is administered subcutaneously, increasing the dosage daily. Sometimes it may be necessary to inject a solution of glucose into the vein with insulin. In the first stage, a person suffering from anorexia should gain 2-4 lbs.
Next comes the next stage of treatment of the disease. Appointed drug therapy in the form of sedatives, hypnosis sessions are possible, reflexotherapy. This stage is designed for 2-3 month's.
Preventive measures are to prevent the recurrence of anorexia. To do this, follow the recommendations of doctors, take prescribed drugs, abandon diets, eat often, but in small portions. You need to expand your circle of friends, try not to withdraw into yourself, find some Hobbies, avoid stressful situations and refuse to view glossy magazines.
Experts emphasize that anorexia it is a chronic pathology, which is characterized by remission and exacerbation, so it is important to follow the advice of doctors, so that the disease no longer has its roots.