We hear a lot about the fact that our body needs protein. But what is it, and why it is so necessary, very few people understand. To assess the adequacy of the proposed diets and make your own proper diet, we offer to understand this topic.
What is proteins. Functions of proteins in the body.
Proteins (proteins, polypeptides) are substances consisting of a certain set of amino acids.
Proteins are an important part of human nutrition, as not all essential amino acids are formed in the body. Some of them should come from protein foods. These amino acids are called indispensable.
Enzymes and hormones – the same kind of proteins.
Protective functions of proteins:
- Physical protection of the body is provided by:
- collagen - protein forming the basis of bones, cartilage, tendons and deep layers of the skin;
- keratin, which is the basis of the hair.
- body Cleansing. Liver enzymes play a particularly important role in cleansing the human body of toxins.
- Immune protection. Proteins that are part of the blood and other biological fluids, neutralize bacteria, viruses.
Participation of proteins in metabolism.
In the process of digestion proteins are broken down into individual amino acids. Some of them are used for the synthesis of proteins of the body, and the rest are converted into glucose, i.e. energy.
Sources of protein in food.
Proteins contained in the products can be divided into animal and vegetable.
Products containing proteins are divided into complete and incomplete. The products of the complete protein cycle contain all the essential amino acids. And incomplete – their part.
Complete protein foods are animal products plus soy.
Incomplete protein foods are foods that contain proteins of plant origin.
This does not mean that by consuming only vegetable proteins you will not get all the necessary amino acids. This means that the products need to be combined correctly, having previously studied their composition.
There are 9 essential amino acids: valine, isoleucine, lysine, leucine, tryptophan, methionine, threonine, phenylalanine. For example, combining rice with beans, for 1 meal you get all the essential amino acids needed by the body.
More combinations for all essential amino acids: mushrooms–cereals; mushrooms–nuts; legumes–cereals; legumes–nuts, as well as different types of legumes in one meal.
Foods rich in animal protein origin:
- eggs, especially quail
- milk and dairy
Foods rich in plant protein:
- legumes (soybeans, beans, peas, lentils, etc.)
- cereals (bread, oatmeal, rice, buckwheat, pearl barley, etc.)
- vegetables, fruits, berries and mushrooms. Especially rich in essential amino acids persimmon, ginger, avocado, spinach, asparagus, Brussels sprouts and cauliflower.
It is a plant food containing all the essential amino acids. That's why it's so popular with vegetarians.
100 grams of soy contains more than 30% protein. It is used to make Japanese soup "miso", soy meat and soy sauce and a lot of else.
Protein food provides a long feeling of satiety.
Easily and quickly assimilated protein eggs and dairy products. According to the theory of separate food, protein food goes well with vegetables. According to modern nutritionists protein is better absorbed in the presence of fats and carbohydrates.
How Many protein foods should I eat?
Interesting fact. Uniform rules there is no human protein intake. The microflora of the large intestine synthesizes amino acids, which are not taken into account in the preparation of protein norms.
It Should be remembered that both the lack and the consumption of large amounts of protein foods can cause you harm.
Signs of protein deficiency in the body:
- weakness, lack of energy;
- decreased libido;
- low resistance to infections;
- violation of metabolic processes;
- muscular atrophy;
- slowing the development of a growing child's body.
Signs of excess protein in the body:
- brittle bones;
- the development of gout;
- overweight. The liver converts excess protein for the body into adipose tissue.