Summer is the time for vacations, holidays, recreation, including under the open sky. Many go to the ponds or the beach. Young mothers go out into the yard with the kids, where the crumbs are playing in the sandbox or on the slides.
And then it waits for lovers of the bright sun and treacherous heat heat stroke, which is fraught with unpleasant consequences.
Concept and essence of the term
So, what is heat stroke? This term is usually understood as a painful condition that is caused by a long stay in high temperature conditions. Simply put, heat stroke - the usual overheating of the body.
For this reason, the human body alone is not able to maintain the normal temperature of the covers. The thing is that there is always a process heat generation is combined with heat transfer disturbances. Accordingly, the first mechanisms are enhanced, which provokes failures of all vital processes.
Special danger it causes for people who suffer from diseases of the heart and blood vessels. They have very serious consequences, cardiac arrest is not excluded.
Overheating is dangerous for all people. At risk - children and cores.
Forms of thermal strikeHeat shock shapes
There are several forms of overheating. Such phenomenon happens:
Each of the types has some feature. For example, the cerebral form is dominated by neuropsychic abnormalities. Pronounced dizziness.
If there is a hyperthermic species, the prevailing temperature is from 39 to 41 degrees. If you encounter gastroenteritis type is dominated by dyspeptic disorders of nature, such as nausea. When there is an asphyxic form, there is a febrile temperature and respiratory failure.
Heat stroke is Often confused with solar. But how similar are these phenomena? Yes, there is a certain similarity, but there are also differences. Thus, unlike overheating, sunstroke is a direct reaction to direct aggressive exposure to sunlight. Infrared light, which is their component, heats the surface and deeper tissues. This also applies to the brain, which causes its defeat. With excessive baking, the blood vessels in the brain expand greatly. They are filled with blood.
Also due to vasodilatation, the permeability of their walls increases. For this reason, the vascular bed leaves the liquid component of the blood. It passes into the intercellular space, which leads to edema.
Do not forget that the brain is in the skull, and it is - a closed cavity, which is almost not able to stretch. Due to edema and other factors listed above blood vessels increases. As a result, brain matter is pressed, the neurons do not receive enough oxygen.
If exposure to sunlight and accompanying factors is too long, nerve cells begin to die. What does it lead to? Sunstroke is able to provoke:
- failures in motor activity;
- sensitivity disorders;
- damage to the respiratory, cardiovascular and other systems of the body.
, In some cases, lethal comes outcome.
Solar exposure usually shows all signs of heat stroke, as it complements the harmful effects of the sun on the body.
Common causes of heat strokeMain causes of heat stroke
What are the main causes of overheating? What can cause such a problem? In adults and children under a year or older, the reasons are quite similar. These are all factors that contribute to overheating of the human body, as well as violate the normal process of sweat, make it difficult to evaporate such moisture.
Among the specific factors that provoke such a problem, it is worth noting dehydration, fatigue, increased humidity and air temperature.
Often the phenomenon is caused by high temperature in poorly ventilated or closed room. This most often affects children 1 year of life and up to 2-3 years at home. But with a similar situation may face a child from 4 to 5, 6, 7 years, who attends kindergarten in the summer.
In adults, the most common causes of heat stroke are abundant food, active physical work in high temperature conditions in rubberized, leather or synthetic clothing.
To Cause a problem can long trips or standing in line in the heat.
Some medications can cause this the disease, as their action depresses the work of the sweat glands. After taking such drugs, a person may well be at sources of heat or in the heat. The result is easy overheating. The category of such funds include antidepressants, atropine, antihistamines, including Dimedrol.
Getting sunstroke if you are without a hat is not so easy. But overheating is easy! Since it is not a prerequisite for the presence of open sunlight. Sometimes it is enough just to spend a few hours in a poorly ventilated and stuffy room.
Risk Factorsthermal shock risk Factors
What contributes to the development of unpleasant and even dangerous syndrome? Children, especially infants, are at risk. The fact is that by the date of birth of the child thermoregulation mechanisms are not fully formed. Therefore, even a strong swaddling baby can provoke overheating of the body.
Another risk factor is taking drugs that have a diuretic effect. Such drugs lead to the active removal of fluid from the tissues. If you take the drugs incorrectly, the mechanism of sweating is violated.
People with diseases that affect the pancreas are At risk. It is in this part of the body produced triiodothyronine and thyroxine. These hormones are responsible for metabolism. But sometimes such substances are produced too much, and this leads to increased body temperature, which creates the risk of being in danger.
At-risk older people because years of broken processes of thermoregulation. Therefore, in adverse conditions, the body overheats faster.
Another risk factor is obesity. With an increase in body weight (when fat tissue mainly grows), the mechanism of heat exchange is strayed, since fat is not able to conduct heat, which is formed mainly in the liver and muscle. As a result, the cooling process is disrupted.
Main symptoms of heat strokeMain symptoms of heat stroke
What are the main symptoms of overheating? It is important to know these signs, as this will help to quickly recognize the heat stroke in a person and give him first aid. Then the risk of serious complications is reduced.
The Main symptoms of the disease are expressed by the following signs:
- increase in heart rate;
- General deterioration of health;
- increase in body temperature.
Headaches may Also be observed, redness of the skin, fainting, feeling of lack of air (ie shortness of breath). The picture is complemented by pressure reduction, nausea, convulsions.
Fever is one of the main symptoms, which manifests itself necessarily. Its origin is simply explained. The phenomenon occurs against the background of violation of the procedure of tissue cooling.
To everything else, blood vessels expand. To the skin surface is the inflow of "hot" blood. Therefore, not only the temperature rises bodies, but also covers become dry, red, hot. Elasticity is reduced. If you measure the temperature, the indicators can vary from 38 to 40 degrees.
How long does the temperature in this state? It's individual. But on average, the rate can remain high for 2-4 days.
Another widespread manifestation – the strongest thirst. Syndrome supplemented:
- muscular pain;
- gradual increase of pulse.
When the process moves to a more severe stage, involuntary urination and defecation may occur. There are seizures. The situation is aggravated by bleeding and vomiting.
Another bright syndrome is headaches. Why do they occur in heat stroke? The reason for their manifestation is due to an increase in intracranial pressure. The mechanism is complemented by edema the meninges and brain tissue. They are concentrated a large number of nerve endings. Because of this, there is an overgrowth, which causes severe headaches.
The Picture is always complemented by a General deterioration of health. At the compensation stage, there is drowsiness, lethargy, apathy, immobility. In the first day there are sleep disorders, irritability, psychomotor agitation. When degradation is dominated by signs of depression CNS. This is often accompanied by fainting. In critical situations - falling into a coma.
First aid for thermal shockFirst aid for thermal shock
How to provide PMP to the victim? In short, emergency care can be represented by the following principle of action:
1️⃣ you must First give drink to the victim. It is best if it is ordinary water. It will take a lot to avoid a strong manifestation dehydrations.
2️⃣ Belt and collar on clothing should be loosened.
3️⃣ human Skin will require cooling.
4️⃣ If the affected clothes from leather, synthetics, rubber, and latex, it is recommended to remove.
This reminder for parents will help to avoid serious or irreversible consequences from overheating.
Usually help can be elementary actions. You need to take the victim into the shade or a cool place. Give to drink, and wet clothes with cool water. This will allow you to achieve relief of his condition.
But if the symptoms indicate a severe degree of overheating, it is necessary not only to work on this scheme, but also to raise the legs of the victim, and as soon as possible to call an ambulance.
Heat stroke Treatment at homeheat stroke Treatment at home
How is heat stroke treated? At home in the first place it is proposed to make cool compresses. They are applied to the head to lower the temperature and eliminate the headache. Also, cool lotions are recommended to be applied to the liver and to the main vessels. This will help to avoid complications.
It is Equally important to wrap the victim in a cool diaper or sheet. This will calm the person, remove the swelling from the tissues, reduce the temperature, reduce all unpleasant manifestations. This method is valid even in the case of treatment of the child. Several of these wraps, coupled with the rest will help to achieve relief and return to the normal rhythm of life.
In some situations you may want to make a warm enema to wash out the stomach.
If the above suggestions do not produce positive results, dispense medicines will not work. To avoid complications, it is recommended to use the so-called lytic. It is a mixture composed of from:
- pipolphen in novocaine.
This tool can effectively treat manifestations of heat stroke.
Self-treatment is unacceptable In case of moderate and severe manifestation of heat stroke. Here you will need the help of qualified physicians.
Prevention of heat stroke
How to avoid overheating? In this matter competent prevention is very important. It boils down to what to avoid:
- long stay in the sun or in the heat;
- wearing clothes made of too dense materials in the heat;
- small and poorly ventilated areas.
If in the heat after a while you began to feel sick, you should go in the shade or coolness. The face and head by spraying with cool water. A little drink.
As for children, the babies should be watched properly in hot weather. Presence of a headdress is obligatory. Leave for a long time under the sun kids is not worth it. To prevent dehydration, the child should be given more often to drink.